Up to 10% of all drugs are counterfeit and this number increases every year. Drug counterfeits are fake drugs intentionally produced with a commercial outcome. Drug counterfeits are a global problem that yearly causes thousands of deaths due to substitution of the active drug compound(s), limited drug production control, and reduced or no pharmaceutical effect of the counterfeited drugs. Non-visual drug counterfeits (e.g. changes in chemical formula or composition) are particularly challenging to identify due to the lack of chemical methods. The components and the drug production method leave a unique and specific chemical fingerprint. Combining knowledge and methods from biogeochemistry to establish a new pharmaceutical methodology can help identify and understand non-visual drug counterfeits through isotopic ratio and trace elemental analysis.
Hydroclimate of the warm Pliocene of western United States
The Pliocene represents a time of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations and a warm climate. We are studying terrestrial climate records of the Pliocene in western United States with the expressed purpose of understanding how western North America will respond to increased CO2 concentrations and a warming world in the future. Our research suggests a wetter southwestern US during warm periods.
Terrestrial climate of the Cretaceous “hot-house” from the Songliao Basin, northeast China
Because of the need to understand the links and feedbacks of the carbon cycle during times of global greenhouse we are examining the Cretaceous climate record preserved in lake sediments in northern China. The Songliao Basin represents one of the most complete records of terrestrial lake sediments of the Cretaceous and is the target of a massive deep drilling project.
The Cenozoic climate record of Western North America
We are developing long-term climate records from the stable isotopes of paleosols, paleolake sediments, and weathered ashes in an effort to understand how climate and tectonics are linked in the North America Cordillera.